What’s up? BONJOUR! Hola! Guten tag! O’SIYO. There are many ways to say hello around the world. O’siyo is the Cherokee word for hello and is used throughout the Cherokee Nation. Before the United States existed, the land was home to a wide variety of different American Indian TRIBES. People often refer to people belonging to these tribes as “Indian” and “NATIVE AMERICAN.” Oftentimes, people lump all tribes into one group when there are major differences between the ETHNIC groups. Each tribe has a unique culture and language, and each has its own system of government.
SPELL NATION, SPELL VARIETY, SPELL CULTURE
What is the Cherokee word for hello? O’SIYO
Before the US existed, the land was home to different American Indian ___. TRIBES
There are major differences between the _____ groups. ETHNIC
Each tribe has its own system of _______. GOVERNMENT
In the text I said that people often refer to the tribes as one of two names, name one. INDIAN or NATIVE AMERICAN
How do you say hello in French? BONJOUR
Tell me how you greet your buddies vs. how you greet elders in your life.
VAKT. Look at the image before this chunk of information; that is how you write hello in Cherokee. Get a piece of paper and write hello like the Cherokees.
The Cherokee tribe shares a language, customs, and beliefs, and there are three “federally recognized” Cherokee tribes in the US. Each tribe gets special programs and services from the government, and they also have certain LEGAL (of or relating to law) rights. In addition to the three recognized tribes, there are more than 200 other groups who identify themselves as Cherokee Indian tribes. The Cherokee originally lived in the southeastern region of the US. This includes but is not limited to today’s modern-day GEORGIA, NORTH CAROLINA, SOUTH CAROLINA, and TENNESSEE. The Cherokee tribes lived by farming, hunting, and gathering on the land.
SPELL BELIEFS SPELL IDENTIFY SPELL GATHERING
There are 3 ________ recognized tribes in the US. FEDERALLY
The term that means of or relating to law is ______. LEGAL
Cherokee people originally lived in the _____ region. SOUTHWESTERN
Name one of the four states I mentioned above in the text. GEORGIA, NORTH CAROLINA, SOUTH CAROLINA, TENNESSEE
Other than the three federally recognized tribes, there are how many other groups who identify as Cherokee? 200
Which state from the original Cherokee land would you like to visit and why?
VAKT – Look at the map above and find and point to one of the states mentioned in the text. Now point to a state within the Cherokee land that was not mentioned.
In the 1700s, the Cherokees first began to interact with the EUROPEANS. They began trading deerskins and had a generally good relationship. The Europeans began to overtake the land of the Cherokees, which started a CONFLICT (a serious disagreement or argument) that led to many battles. The Cherokee tribes lost a SIGNIFICANT (sufficiently great) amount of land during this time as the Europeans began to build new SETTLEMENTS in the Cherokee territory. From April of 1775 to September of 1783, the American Revolution TRANSPIRED (occurred, happened), which led to the loss of most of their remaining land.
SPELL INTERACT SPELL SETTLEMENT SPELL TRANSPIRED
In the 1770s, the Cherokees began to interact with the ____. EUROPEANS
Word meaning a serious disagreement or argument is what? CONFLICT
The tribes lost a significant amount during the conflict. LAND
The American ______ caused the Cherokee to lose their remaining land. REVOLUTION
Name one of the two synonyms used to define transpired. OCCURRED or HAPPENED
Name another war the US has fought in. WORLD WAR, WORLD WAR 2, CIVIL WAR, WAR IN IRAQ
In what year did the American Revolution begin? End? 1775, 1783
How long did the American Revolution last? 1783-1775= 8 YEARS
Check out this brief segment from a History Channel documentary about the American Revolutionary War. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HwWi0zdF7wk (3 min 30 sec)
Over the decades, the Cherokee people began to change and ADOPT some parts of American culture and technology. The tribes used to grow their food on COMMUNAL farms, and the Americans taught and encouraged them to grow their own food on individual FARMSTEADS. This tradition remains true today across the US; each farmer owning their own land and grows his or her own crops. The Cherokee also began to raise pigs and cattle instead of relying on hunting deer. They began to use spinning wheels to spin cotton, and they began to adopt some STRUCTURES (the arrangement of and relations between the parts of something complex) of the US government for their own society.
SPELL TECHNOLOGY SPELL FARMSTEAD SPELL SOCIETY
Cherokee people began to _____ parts of American culture. ADOPT
The tribes began growing their food on _____ farms. COMMUNAL
The word means an arrangement of and relations between the parts or elements of something complex is what? STRUCTURES
Name one of the two animals the Cherokee people began raising. PIGS or CATTLE
Name another animal they may have raised on their land. HORSE, GOAT, SHEEP, CHICKENS
Name a type of technology we have adopted from other countries and how we use it today.
As the US grew in the 1830s, the government wanted more land for themselves, which led to the army pushing the Cherokee people off their land. In 1830 Andrew Jackson signed the INDIAN REMOVAL ACT, which gave the federal government the power to exchange Native land east of the MISSISSIPPI River for land to the west. At first, some of the tribes VOLUNTARILY relocated, but many of them were forced against their will. At this time, they were viewed by Americans as an ASSIMILATED (resembling, alike) tribe as they had created a written alphabet and published a newspaper.
SPELL RESEMBLE SPELL PUBLISH SPELL INFAMOUSLY
Some of the tribes left the land ________. VOLUNTARILY
The word meaning resembling or alike is what? ASSIMILATED
What act was signed into place in 1830? INDIAN REMOVAL ACT
Which president signed the Indian Removal Act? ANDREW JACKSON
Name another US President. GEORGE WASHINGTON, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, BARACK OBAMA, DONALD TRUMP, JOE BIDEN
What currency is Andrew Jackson on? TWENTY DOLLAR BILL
In what year did Andrew Jackson sign the Indian Removal Act? 1830
If you were to create a blog or newspaper, what would you name it and why?
VAKT: Look at the image above of the 12 Cherokee symbols. Circle your two favorite symbols.
Why did you select the images you did?
IN 1838 and 1839, as part of the Indian Removal Act, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up all land east of the Mississippi and move to present-day OKLAHOMA. The Cherokee called this journey the “TRAIL OF TEARS.” The MIGRANTS faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. 15,000 Cherokee people began the journey but over 5,000 of them died along the trail. The physical path was over 5,043 miles long and crossed nine states; Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Tennessee. Portions of the trail are still accessible today by foot, horse, bicycle, or car.
SPELL MIGRANT SPELL PHYSICAL SPELL PORTION
The Cherokee were forced to give us all land east of what? MISSISSIPPI (RIVER)
As part of the Indian Removal Act, the Cherokees were forced to move to present-day ________. OKLAHOMA
What was the name of the journey they took? TRAIL OF TEARS
You can still access portions of the trail today by foot, horse, ______, or car. BICYCLE
Name one of the three difficulties I mentioned they suffered from on the Trail of Tears. HUNGER, DISEASE, EXHAUSTION
Name one of the nine states crossed in the Trail of Tears. ALABAMA, ARKANSAS, GEORGIA, ILLINOIS, KENTUCKY, MISSOURI, NORTH CAROLINA, OKLAHOMA, TENNESSEE
How long is the Trail of Tears? 5,043 MILES
How many Cherokee people survived the journey to Oklahoma? 15,000-5,000=10,000
Tell me about a disease that has affected people during your lifetime.
What are your thoughts on the name of the trail?
On March 26, 1839, Cherokee Indians came to the end of the trail in Oklahoma TERRITORY. The people declared TAHLEQUAH as the Cherokee capital at the close of the Trail of Tears. The town of Tahlequah became a community that planned for the future through government, schools, PROSPEROUS businesses, religious ENTITIES, and a desire to grow in Cherokee territory. The great Indian INTERTRIBAL COUNCIL of 1843 brought an influx of 10,000 people, with 21 tribes represented. Through the years of 1844-1847, the Cherokee Supreme Court House, National Hotel, the post office, and the first school were built, and the Cherokee Advocate newspaper was first printed.
SPELL ENTITY SPELL PROSPEROUS SPELL INFLUX
The Cherokees declared _____ as their capital. TAHLEQUAH
In 1843 the great Indian _______ Council was formed. INTERTRIBAL
The Cherokee ____ newspaper was first printed. ADVOCATE
Name one of the ways the Cherokees planned. GOVERNMENT, SCHOOLS, PROSPEROUS BUSINESSES, RELIGIOUS ENTITIES, AND A DESIRE TO GROW
Name one of the four things built in Tahlequah between the years of 1844 and 1847. SUPREME COURT HOUSE, NATIONAL HOTEL, POST OFFICE, SCHOOL
In what year did the Trail of Tears end? 1839
How many tribes were present at the first Indian Intertribal Council? 21
VAKT: Using the Trail of Tears map at the end of the lesson, take your pencil or finger and trace any of the lines leading to Tahlequah, Oklahoma.
Today the Cherokee Nation is the largest tribal Nation in the United States, with more than 317,000 CITIZENS. The Nation’s ECONOMIC impact in Oklahoma and surrounding areas is more than $1.5 billion ANNUALLY, and it is the largest employer in Northeastern Oklahoma. The Cherokee Nation offers many services to its citizens, which include but are not limited to: Housing AUTHORITY of the Cherokee Nation, Community Services, Education, Health Services, Human Services, COMMERCE Services, and Career Services.
SPELL CITIZEN SPELL AUTHORITY SPELL ANNUALLY
The Cherokee Nation is the _____ tribal Nation in the US. LARGEST
The Nation has a large ____ impact on Oklahoma and surrounding areas. ECONOMIC
The Nation is the largest employer in _______ Oklahoma. NORTHEASTERN
Name one of the types of services I mentioned that are offered by the Cherokee nation today. HOUSING AUTHORITY OF THE CHEROKEE NATION, COMMUNITY SERVICES, EDUCATION, HEALTH SERVICES, HUMAN SERVICES, COMMERCE SERVICES, AND CAREER SERVICES.
Name a large employer in your area. (Will vary by location). QUIKTRIP, MACY’S, FORD, TESLA, BANK OF OKLAHOMA, HILTON
Tell me your thoughts on the services provided by the Cherokee Nation to its people. What additional services would be beneficial?
VAKT – Look at the map of Oklahoma at the end of the lesson and point to Tahlequah.
Visitors come from around the country to visit the Cherokee Capital and IMMERSE themselves in the longstanding traditions of language, spirituality, food, storytelling, and many forms of art. You can visit the Cherokee National History Museum, National Research Center, Supreme Court Museum, National Prison Museum, and more while in Tahlequah. SEMINARY Hall on the Northeastern State UNIVERSITY campus was built in 1889 as the Cherokee Female Seminary and is still a signature building on the campus today. When you arrive in the heart of the Cherokee Nation, you will be greeted with open arms and a warm O’SIYO!
SPELL TRADITION, SPELL CAMPUS, SPELL SIGNATURE
______ Hall was built in 1889. SEMINARY
Visitors come from all around to _____ themselves in Cherokee culture. IMMERSE
Seminary Hall is located on the Northeastern State _______ campus. UNIVERSITY
Name one of the four historical places you can visit in Tahlequah. CHEROKEE NATIONAL HISTORY MUSEUM, NATIONAL RESEARCH CENTER, SUPREME COURT MUSEUM, NATIONAL PRISON MUSEUM
Name one of the traditions that visitors immerse themselves in while visiting the capital. LANGUAGE, SPIRITUALITY, FOOD, STORYTELLING, ART FORMS
If you were to visit the Cherokee Nation Capital, what would you like to learn more about? Where would you like to visit?
VAKT – Watch this video of the Cherokee National Holiday Powwow in Tahlequah, OK, in 2019. https://youtu.be/Hza3s2n6BgY(2 min 15 sec)
Seminary Hall Today
A common prayer of the Cherokee people is this: “Oh Great Spirit, who made all races. Look kindly upon the whole human family and take away the arrogance and hatred which separated us from our brothers.” What are your thoughts on this prayer or the Cherokee’s?
The Native Americans have continued to fight for their land and heritage over time here in the United States. What is something you have fought for throughout your life? What is something you want to continue to fight for yourself and others as you live on this earth?